What is Controlled Impedance for a PCB?

Controlled impedance is a method used in printed circuit boards (PCBs) to make sure that the signals transmitted through the board have a consistent and predictable electrical resistance, known as impedance. This is achieved by matching the impedance of the transmission line to the source and load impedances, which helps to reduce signal loss or distortion caused by reflections. To achieve controlled impedance, the PCB trace's width, spacing, and thickness are precisely controlled.

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